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Wine: higher knowledgeable to decide on effectively

DGCCRF and wine: an intimately linked story

From 1863, French viticulture confronted the phylloxera disaster, named after an aphid from the japanese United States that step by step ravaged the winery. Manufacturing collapsed, dropping from 84 million hectoliters in 1875 to only 23 in 1889. Ersatz wines had been then produced from beet sugar, water, aromas, raisins… On this context of fraud aggravated by competitors from international wines, the Griffe regulation of August 14, 1889 defines for the primary time wine because the ” product of the fermentation of recent grapes “.

Nevertheless, the absence of controls doesn’t make it doable to appease the anger of winegrowers, significantly within the South of France. In 1907, a number of tens of 1000’s of demonstrators marched in Narbonne, Béziers, Perpignan, Carcassonne, Nîmes […] and Montpellier, the place 600,000 to 800,000 individuals invade the town heart on June 9. The stress culminates on June 20, when 5 demonstrators are killed by the military in Narbonne.

Beneath the stress of occasions, Parliament adopted a number of legal guidelines defending wine made solely from grapes towards “synthetic wines”: ban on the manufacture of falsified wines, ban on wetting, regulation of the usage of sugar, declarations of areas in manufacturing , harvests and shares, regulation of the circulation of alcohol… These regulatory provisions are nonetheless legitimate.

On October 21, 1907, a decree created the “fraud prevention service”, the ancestor of the DGCCRF. The safety of the pursuits of customers and wine firms has since then been on the coronary heart of the considerations of this administration. At this time, 9 wine and spirits investigation brigades distributed within the wine-growing areas criss-cross the vineyards to confirm the equity of the merchandise positioned in the marketplace.

What’s wine?

The product obtained solely by the alcoholic fermentation, whole or partial, of recent grapes, crushed or not, or of grape should »: that is how European rules at present outline wine. Round fifty oenological merchandise and practices are additionally approved, with the purpose of guaranteeing “good vinification, good conservation or good growing old of the product”.

With the intention to defend the time period “wine”, the rules prohibit the usage of this time period for fermented drinks produced from different fruits, generally incorrectly known as “wine of (cherry, peach, and many others.)”.

What are the primary phases of wine manufacturing?

Wine is the results of fermentation. Whereas fermentation is a pure course of, human intervention is required to stop wine from turning into vinegar. The principle phases within the design of a wine are as follows:

  • the cultivation of the vine: all year long, the pruning and upkeep of the vines will enable the winegrower to make sure the great high quality of the grapes;
  • harvest : they consist in harvesting the grapes to press them and procure should, the juice of the grapes which will likely be remodeled into wine;
  • alcoholic fermentation: the sugars within the should are remodeled into alcohol by the motion of the yeasts;
  • breeding: the wine is stored in numerous containers (barrels, tuns, stainless-steel vats, concrete vats, and many others.) for a number of months in order that its construction evolves and its aromas develop;
  • fining or filtration: a glue primarily based on vegetable (peas specifically) or animal (fish, egg white) proteins is usually added to be able to agglomerate and get better the particles (residues of pips, pores and skin, and many others.) in suspension;
  • bottling: the wine is bottled and closed with a cork stopper, historically.

In glowing wines, a draft liquormade up of nonetheless wine (with out bubbles) and sugar, is added after the alcoholic fermentation to be able to promote foaming throughout a second fermentation: it’s at this stage that the carbon dioxide seems which is within the origin of the bubbles.

The principle classes of wine

The wine might be:

  • calm : it doesn’t comprise carbon dioxide;
  • glowing: it may be both glowing (ex: AOP Bugey “Cerdon”), or glowing (ex: Champagne). The distinction between glowing wine and glowing wine lies specifically within the carbon dioxide content material (increased in glowing wines).

There are additionally two main wine colours:

  • the White wine : it’s constructed from the fermentation of white grapes, or extra hardly ever pink grapes with white juice;
  • the Crimson wine : it’s constructed from the fermentation of pink grapes.

Good to know

Rosé wine belongs to the household of pink wines (the maceration of the grape juice with the skins lasts just a few hours to provide a rosé). It’s forbidden to make rosé by mixing white wine and pink wine (aside from AOP Champagne).

Orange wine is just not a coloration of wine. It’s a white wine produced by maceration with the skins of white grapes.

Blue wine doesn’t exist naturally. It’s a fraud involving including blue coloring to white wine. Including coloring to wines is prohibited.

Indicators of high quality

A lot of the wines produced in France are identifiable by way of the indicators of high quality that are Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) The place Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). When the wines fall underneath these high quality indicators, these phrases should seem on the product labeling (aside from AOP Champagne).

The PDO/PGI high quality indicators confer with a manufacturing space delimited outdoors of which these wines can’t be produced and which provides them a typicality in reference to a terroir. Every IGP or PDO is ruled by particular specs defining the manufacturing and presentation guidelines particular to it. These manufacturing guidelines are stricter than the widespread guidelines outlined at European stage and relevant to all wines.

By default, the opposite wines are certified of wines with out geographical indication (VSIG). It may be “vin de France” whether it is produced in France with grapes harvested and vinified in France. It may also be wine from the European Union, whether it is the results of a mix of wines produced inside the European Union.

Medals can tackle the looks of an indication of high quality within the eyes of the buyer; in actuality, they’re awards given throughout competitions. These competitions should be authorised by the DGCCRF and may reward as much as 1/3 of the candidate wines, following a regulated process. The listing of authorised competitions is printed within the official bulletin of the CCRF. Accepted competitions assure producers and customers that the process for awarding medals is revered. Many competitions are paid for by taking part producers. The juries are made up of execs and amateurs.

wine producers

the winemaker is the one who cultivates the vines and harvests the grapes, develops the wine till it’s marketed. He takes care of all of the manufacturing phases himself, from pruning the vines to bottling. Nevertheless, it might occur that these steps are carried out by totally different individuals:

  • the winemaker is he who cultivates the vine;
  • the winemaker is the one who transforms grapes or unfermented grape juice into wine.

For causes of financial system of scale, winegrowers can meet in wine cooperative and vinify the grape musts in widespread. They then have the appropriate to make use of the labeling “bottled on the property”, the cooperative cellar being thought of as an extension of the winemaker’s property.

It additionally occurs that grapes or unfermented juices or wines are bought by a service provider which then takes care of promoting these merchandise underneath its model. It’s then a commerce wine. If this dealer buys grapes or musts and vinifies himself, he will likely be thought of as a trader-winemaker.

Good to know

Industrial wines might not use sure phrases reserved for property wines benefiting from an AOP or IGP (eg: “domaine”, “chateau”). Thus, the point out “bottled on the château” implies that the wine is due to this fact a wine owned by the winegrower and that the latter has ensured all of the phases of manufacturing from the vine to the bottling. A property wine is just not essentially of higher high quality than a commerce wine: the service provider can choose the winegrowers with whom he works, however the winegrower has management of the complete manufacturing chain from vine cultivation to manufacturing. ‘site visitors jam.

Grape varieties and vintages

Most wines point out on their labeling a classic which designates a yr of manufacturing. This indication is just not compulsory however supposed to tell the buyer that no less than 85% of the wine contained within the bottle does come from grapes harvested in the course of the yr in query. The classic can have an effect on the standard of the wine, specifically due to the climatic components which might affect the standard of the grapes.

Because it considerations the grape varieties (i.e. the kinds of grapes, eg Chardonnay, Pinot noir), a bottle can point out a single grape selection if the product involved is constructed from no less than 85% of this selection. If the names of two or extra grape varieties are used, the wine should be constructed from 100% of the labeled grape varieties. For wines benefiting from an AOP or IGP, it is usually offered by nationwide rules that every selection indicated represents no less than 15% of the ultimate mix of the wine.

Just like the classic, the grape selection is just not a compulsory indication.

Labeling data

Wine labels embody many particulars: some are obligatory (gross sales denomination, allergens, alcoholic diploma, and many others.), others optionally available and controlled (classic, grape selection, time period “château”…) and at last there are free particulars. (description of the wine, personal labels, and many others.).

To know all the things concerning the labeling data and higher select your wine in accordance with your expectations, the DGCCRF has created this information.

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