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Rio Tinto’s “Singapore Sling” | Cost of 1 billion for unpaid taxes

The information went unnoticed, but it surely grew to become of curiosity with the resignation of Sophie Brochu. It issues the primary aluminum producer in Quebec and a serious shopper of electrical energy, Rio Tinto, to which our governments have granted beneficiant tax and electrical energy items.

Final July, subsequently, the multinational settled a tax dispute which had opposed it to the Australian tax authorities for a number of years. The whole fee quantities to virtually 1 billion Australian {dollars} (920 million Canadian)⁠1.

The case, led by the tax avoidance group of the Australian Taxation Workplace, involved unpaid taxes for the years 2010 to 2021. The problem involved the switch of sure income to a extra advantageous tax administration, particularly for the advertising of iron ore and aluminum.

Quebec is subsequently not the one place the place Rio Tinto needs to attenuate its funds to the State. In a current file, I defined that the multinational pays just about no taxes to the Quebec authorities for its aluminum sector.⁠2. Basically, Rio Tinto has benefited from numerous tax holidays from the Quebec and federal governments for years.

On this file, I additionally revealed that the aluminum smelters pay a significantly decrease charge for his or her electrical energy to Hydro-Québec than that deemed worthwhile by the Crown company.⁠3. They will additionally emit greenhouse gases (GHG) with out paying offsets on the carbon market or taxes, in contrast to many different industries.

The benefits obtained in Quebec are such that Rio Tinto indicated in its 2017 annual report that the manufacturing prices of its Canadian aluminum smelters have been among the many 10% lowest on this planet (85% of Canadian aluminum smelters are in Quebec).

A fiscal “Singapore Sling”

Nonetheless, the Australian tax authorities have been difficult since 2015 sure practices that Rio Tinto had applied in 2010 with its new product advertising middle in Singapore, judging that they amounted to tax avoidance.

Iron ore mined in Australia is the primary product at stake, however the dispute additionally concerned the corporate’s Australian aluminium. The settlement additionally impacts how Rio Tinto financed the fee of dividends between associates, which had an impression on Australian taxes.

Within the center, analysts name the tax planning utilized by Rio Tinto for its merchandise the “Singapore Sling”, in reference to the well-known cocktail.

Rio Tinto’s competitor, BHP Billinton, has additionally used it, like many different firms. Right here is how the specialised web site TP Instances describes this tax planning:

“The hot button is to promote merchandise to a associated entity in Singapore for, say, $50 a tonne. The Singapore firm can then promote the ore to its prospects on the checklist worth of $70 per tonne. Income are recorded in Singapore, not Australia, and the company tax charge in Singapore is way decrease, round 15%. Thus, firms can effectively shift income to those much less taxed locations.

“Though the Australian Taxation Workplace accepts that reputable enterprise actions are carried out in Singapore (delivery, insurance coverage and so-called advertising), the query is whether or not the income attributable to Singapore facilities are cheap. »

Standing in Canada

Within the 2016 annual report, the previous CEO of Rio Tinto Jean-Sébastien Jacques praised the usage of the brand new middle in Singapore to extend the group’s productiveness. The strategy is known as “from mine to market” (mine-to-market).

From this angle of productiveness, Rio Tinto explains that the advertising of aluminum, 49% of which is produced in Quebec, is “supported by a single international gross sales group managed [de] Singapore, tasked with maximizing worth throughout the product group,” reads the 2017 annual report.

Rio Tinto additional clarifies that it has discussions with the Australian Taxation Workplace concerning the worth of merchandise transferred to Singapore. She doesn’t point out any litigation with the Canada Income Company, which she could be required to do if the file have been vital.


Aluminum cylinders at Rio Tinto’s Jonquière complicated in Saguenay. Quebec aluminum smelters signify 49% of the corporate’s international manufacturing.

The Singapore middle has 450 staff at this time, representing lower than 1% of Rio Tinto’s complete workforce. For the multinational, one of many important aims of the Singapore aluminum group is to develop, along with prospects, “new purposes that may stimulate gross sales of value-added merchandise”.

Reached by phone, the spokesperson for Rio Tinto in Canada, Simon Letendre, explains that the query of switch costs with Singapore doesn’t apply to aluminum from Canada “since virtually all of the aluminum made right here is offered in North America “.

Tax authorities, such because the Canada Income Company and Revenu Québec, by no means make tax disputes with taxpayers public, until they contest them in court docket. And verification made, there isn’t a dispute on this topic made by Rio Tinto earlier than the Canadian Courtroom of the tax or the Courtroom of Quebec.

“Switch pricing is audited by the Canada Income Company like some other transaction,” Mr. Letendre tells me.

One other case has however been earlier than the Tax Courtroom of Canada since 2021, this time for deductions claimed by Rio Tinto for analysis and improvement in British Columbia (Kitimat plant). The 2 circumstances have an effect of some 26 million taxes for Rio Tinto for the years 2016 and 2017, in keeping with the authorized course of, which is ongoing.

The settlement with the Australian tax authorities doesn’t put Rio Tinto in danger. The corporate earned complete income of US$63.5 billion in 2021 and after-tax income of US$21 billion.

And to Rio Tinto’s credit score, the multinational has been pretty open about its tax practices with the Australian Taxation Workplace (ATO), in keeping with out there data. The ATO had additionally affirmed earlier than a committee of the Australian Parliament in 2015 that the corporate “had been fairly clear” in regards to the middle of Singapore.

On the time of the A$1 billion deal, ATO Deputy Commissioner Rebecca Saint mentioned, “Even earlier than this settlement, Rio was one of many largest tax payers on the revenue from Australia for a few years, with a powerful monitor file of participating with the ATO in relation to its tax issues, though there are some areas of litigation. »

Nonetheless, the query arises: what contribution ought to we count on from a multinational like Rio Tinto for its presence in a resource-rich territory like Quebec?

Is the aluminum trade actually creating wealth, as François Legault needs, figuring out what it pays in taxes and electrical energy tariffs, figuring out that its productiveness per kilowatt hour may be very low on this period of power shortage, and figuring out that its jobs, in decline, are very pricey for the State, particularly with the scarcity of labour?

1. Extra particularly, Rio Tinto should pay an extra A$613 million for the years 2010 to 2021, which is on high of the A$378 million in further taxes paid in earlier claims that have been a part of the dispute. Throughout this era, Rio Tinto paid virtually 80 billion in taxes and royalties in Australia.

2. If we add the federal authorities, its tax funds for Quebec aluminum are near 4% of its world complete, whereas its aluminum smelters in Quebec signify 49% of its manufacturing on this planet.

3. Rio Tinto advantages from much more advantageous circumstances for 90% of its electrical wants by producing its personal power. The best to supply this power was granted to it by the governments in two types: one for the Saguenay River, the opposite for the Péribonka River, in Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean.

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