The pension reform is offered by the federal government as a budgetary crucial, and a regulation of “justice» for seniors and essentially the most precarious. Extra typically, it’s anchored in a European concern to perpetuate the expenditure — which, paradoxically, are doing reasonably properly within the very long run.
” The size of retirement in France is without doubt one of the longest in Europe underlines Matignon, for whom the brand new pension reform offered final Tuesday (January 10), along with the monetary crucial, goals to harmonize approaches at European stage.
Prime Minister Elisabeth Borne has repeatedly identified that France was one of many final European international locations with such a low authorized retirement age, 62 years — what confirms the official organ of the CLEISS. A correction is due to this fact inevitable, in response to the Prime Minister, to right the demographic results — this “child growth» post-war turn out to be “grandpa-boom» — and make sure the sustainability of the system.
Ditto for the problem of the employment of seniors, which is on the coronary heart of the reform: ” we’re one of many international locations in Europe the place the proportion of 55-64 working individuals is the bottom “. 33% of 60-64 are lively in France, in opposition to 45% on a European scale, in response to the providers of Matignon.
” A big majority of European international locations are 65 years outdated. There’s due to this fact a solidarity of show, and harmonization is crucial “, abounds Jean-Marc Daniel, economist at ESCP Enterprise College, with EURACTIV France.
Topic all of the extra pressing because the system is now not financially sustainable : ” France resides manner past its means»advance Mr. Daniel, who alerts on the 5 % of deficit relative to GDP in France, properly above the 3 % regulatory underneath the Maastricht Treaty. If the foundations of the Treaty have ceased ofbe utilized through the Covid-19 disaster, the States say they’re able to regain management over public spending.
The revision of the budgetary guidelines, offered in November, doesn’t have an effect on furthermore not the well-known diptych of the preliminary texts : a debt-to-GDP ratio of 60 %, and a deficit/GDP ratio of 3 %.
An “important” measure
So, the right way to affiliate European budgetary rigor with the generosity of French social insurance policies?
” The mannequin of European financial integration, based mostly on a supply-side coverage, is in battle with the French desire for broad social spending and in opposition to the deregulation of the labor market “says Daniel Clegg in a analysis paper printed in 2022.
Nevertheless, all of the European reviews say it and repeat it: whereas the age pyramid is inverted and the variety of retirees will increase in comparison with working individuals all over the place on the continent, “the extension of working life is a vital response to this case says the European Fee’s Inexperienced Paper on Ageing, printed in 2021.
The truth is, structural reforms are crucial – to the purpose of constructing the European argument the engine of French reforms. That is what Arnaud Lechevalier, lecturer at Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne and specialist in pensions, says. For the reason that reform of 2010 underneath the federal government of François Fillon, the researcher reviews a ” change of discursive register “, making the “French specificity” an issue to be solved vis-à-vis our European neighbours.
Secure bills over the long run
However details are cussed : “ the European Fee forecasts that the share of GDP dedicated to pension expenditure will attain 13% of GDP by 2070 “, explains Mr. Lechevalier. The Pensions Orientation Council (COR), in its 2021 report on growing older – i.e. earlier than Mr. Macron’s marketing campaign promise – successfully underlines that in the long run pension expenditure is destined to fall in eight European international locations , together with France.
A actuality that may be defined, at the very least in France, by a normal decline within the common way of life of retirees relative to lively households, due specifically to the indexation of pensions and liquidated salaries to inflation reasonably than salaries, explains the researcher. The truth is, pensioners, in the event that they see their buying energy assured, now not take part within the progress of actual wages from which the working inhabitants will profit.
The a lot talked about annual report on the evolution of pensions from the COR, printed in September, doesn’t say something totally different: in three of the 4 eventualities offered, the expenditure of the French pension system stays secure at round 13% , or decline, by 2070.
Even final 12 months’s French Nationwide Restoration and Resilience Plan, which confirms the federal government’s want to push via a ” formidable reform speaks of a deficit of the system “at the very least quick time period », preferring to focus his arguments on the employment of seniors and the inequalities created by the system.
“Monetary stability on the backs of employees »
The European Fee has furthermore laid out in a communication of October 17, 2022 that it isn’t behind the reform: “not one of the reforms which seem within the nationwide restoration and resilience plans are imposed by the European Union. “.
” For essentially the most half, the reforms geared toward guaranteeing long-term monetary stability have already been applied and can produce their results progressively. concludes Mr. Lechevalier.
And the unions to affirm in unison — uncommon sufficient to be famous — that “this pension reform vs’is extra a reform of public funds, ofmonetary stability on the only again of the employees»within the phrases of Laurent Berger, Secretary Normal of the CFDT, on France Inter final Wednesday (11 January). Bercy believes that the reform will repay 17.7 billion euros in State coffers by 2030 and that 100,000 jobs might be created by 2025.